Family Therapy

Family Therapy

Family Therapy

Family therapy is a type of counseling that is meant to help members of a family with their communication while also helping to work through any conflicts or issues that may be going on. Family therapy is normally done with a psychologist although a clinical social worker or licensed therapists can provide family therapy too. Most therapists who are involved with family therapy have at least a graduate or postgraduate degree and may or may not have credentials from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

Family therapy is not a long term therapy. Family therapy can include all members of the family or just the ones who want and are capable of participating. The goal of family therapy depends on each individual situation. Family therapy can teach families to deepen connections and get through rough patches even long after family therapy is over.

Family therapy really is best at helping to improve broken relationships with spouses, children or other family members. During family therapy specific issues are addressed such as marital problems, financial problems, disagreements between parents and children, behavioral problems, or even substance abuse and mental health problems. Family therapy can be done along with other types of mental health treatments.

This is especially true for a family that has mental illness within it or someone with an addiction that also requires drug rehabilitation or individual therapy. For instance, family therapy can help a family cope if a relative has a mental illness such as schizophrenia or the family can utilize family therapy while the member who is addicted to drugs is in drug treatment. Family therapy is extremely useful for any and all families that may be going through grief, stress, anger or any type of conflict. Family therapy tries to bring family members together so they can better understand one another.

During family therapy several members get together with a family therapist. Family therapy sessions usually last around an hour. However many session of family therapy are needed depend on the each family’s individual situation. During family therapy the entire family will look at their ways of solving problems while also expressing their thoughts and emotions. Family roles, rules and behavior patterns will be explored in order to pinpoint the issues that may lead to conflict in order for it to be overcome. Family therapy can also help with realizing a family’s strengths, weaknesses or difficulty being open with one another.

The entire family therapy session is guided by a family therapist. The family therapist helps the family learn new ways to overcome unhealthy behavior patterns when it comes to relating with each other and communicating with each other. Sometimes the family therapist will have the family set goals together and they will work on ways to achieve them.

Family therapy does not ever automatically solve family issues or make uncomfortable, stressful, or hard to handle conflicts go away but family therapy can help each member of the family unit to understand one another better and can provide each person with skills to cope more effectively while coming together.

Source:

http://www.webmd.com/balance/family-therapy-6301

Substance Induced Psychotic Disorder

Substance Induced Psychotic Disorder

Substance-induced psychotic disorder

Substance-induced psychotic disorder is basically psychosis brought on by the abuse of drugs and alcohol. It usually features hallucinations or delusions that are judged to be due to the direct effects of a substance.

Substance-induced psychotic disorder: Causes

Many drugs of abuse can cause substance-induced psychotic disorder. These include alcohol, amphetamines, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids and sedative hypnotics like benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Many prescription medications and over the counter medications can cause it too. These include anesthetics, analgesics, anticholinergic agents, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, cardiovascular medications, antimicrobial medications, antiparkinsonian medications, chemotherapeutic agents, corticosteroids, gastrointestinal medications, muscle relaxants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and anti-depressants.

Not all cases of substance-induced psychotic disorder occur as a result of substance abuse. Sometimes people (especially small children) ingest toxic substances by accident. Other times, people are exposed to toxins and don’t even know it (such as when someone gets food poisoning at a restaurant). Alternatively, people may take too much of a legitimately prescribed medication, medicines may interact in unforeseen ways, or doctors may miscalculate the effects of medicines they prescribed.

Substance-induced psychotic disorder: Criteria

For a person to be diagnosed with substance-induced psychotic disorder, they have to exhibit certain criteria. The first criterion is that the psychotic disorder features prominent hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech or behavior, or catatonia. Secondly, the psychotic symptoms must be due to the direct effect of a substance. This can be a drug of abuse or a toxin. Hallucinations that the person realizes are brought on by the substance are not included, because these are diagnosed as substance intoxication or withdrawal. The third criterion is that the disturbance is not better accounted for by a different psychotic disorder. The fourth criterion is that the symptoms do not only occur during the course of a delirium. Only when the symptoms exceed normal intoxication or withdrawal is the individual deemed to have substance-abuse psychotic disorder.

Substance-induced psychotic disorder: Difficulty

Sometimes it is very difficult to diagnose substance-induced psychotic disorder. If a person has a psychotic episode while under the influence of drugs or alcohol, it can be difficult to determine if the symptoms go above and beyond the normal signs of intoxication. Similarly, when a person is withdrawal, they may suffer psychotic symptoms that are due to the withdrawal process and aren’t substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Further complicating the matter is that many drugs exacerbate or trigger an underlying mental condition. It can be difficult to determine whether the symptoms of psychosis are due to substance-induced psychotic disorder or whether the drugs and alcohol just set off a mental disorder that was already present.

The strongest predictors of substance-induced psychotic disorder are a family history of psychosis, trauma history and current cannabis dependence. These traits can sometimes help doctors differentiate between primary psychosis and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Substance-induced psychotic disorder: Treatment

Treatment involves relieving the intoxicated condition under medical observation to control withdrawal symptoms. Sometimes treatment means medical management of a continuing withdrawal process. If these treatments are not successful, then usually the diagnoses changes to primary psychosis.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22321667

http://www.health.am/psy/substance-induced-psychotic-disorder/