Online therapist for alcohol addiction

Online therapist for alcohol addiction

An online therapist for alcohol addiction sounds like a great idea, but is it really? Yes, an online therapist may be convenient and in some instances cheap, but are you really getting the quality of therapy you may need to treat something as serious as an alcohol addiction. It all really depends on how much therapy is needed and the severity of your alcohol addiction. An evaluation of your alcohol addiction will definitely need to be done in order to determine if this very light level of care will work for you. Such an evaluation can be done online, leading to recommendations for the appropriate treatment.

So who can use or benefit from an online therapist for alcohol addiction help?

People who are already involved in any stage (intensive outpatient, continuing care, aftercare) of traditional treatment program or have completed any stage of a traditional treatment program can use online therapy as a way supplement their treatment.

So what is wrong with an online therapist for alcohol addiction?

1. By its nature, online therapy can be interrupted by technological difficulties beyond the control of either the counselor or the client, for instance, a storm or just a random modem problem. Is your mental health really going to rely on an internet connection? Before services are provided, the client will be given suggestions for alternative methods for contacting the online therapist should disruptions in the client’s service occur (for ex., a public library). The online therapist should pledge that should technical difficulties result from his/her personal computer or other internet access the online therapist will have alternative internet access readily available.

2. The visual and auditory cues available during face-to-face online therapy are, of course, not available in internet counseling. Therefore, it is vital that both the client and the online therapist be diligent in seeking clarification of any communications, as needed. And making sure that everything is well understood and talked about.

3. The online therapist for alcohol addictions must at the outset of the online therapeutic relationship help the client to identify local therapists and other treatment providers, including crisis services in the event of an emergency. Most of the time therapists give their phone number to clients or clients can rush to see them should something happen. With an online therapist for alcohol addiction there is no personal connection like that in the event something goes wrong in the client’s life.

4. The online therapist for alcohol addiction must include safeguards to keep client information confidential and protected from unauthorized access. This is always an unknown when using the Internet. Client information, including history, diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and progress notes, should be for the online therapist’s eyes only. No one else must have access to this information. The information should be retained on a safeguarded CD for one year after the online therapy relationship has ended, or for a longer or shorter period of time dictated by the client.

Therapy is very much a relationship between the therapist and client. With an online therapist for alcohol addiction that relationship is not nearly as strong or as helpful for either one. You would never have a romantic relationship entirely based online for years or even months. So why do the same with a therapist? Online therapists for alcohol addiction may be a great last resort for those who just need a little extra advice here and there but for someone who is really depending on therapy this sounds like a terrible idea

History of Therapy: Albert Ellis

History of Therapy: Albert Ellis

Albert Ellis, Ph.D., was born in Pittsburgh, PA on September 27, 1913 and was raised in New York City. He held an M.A. and Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Columbia University. Albert Ellis held many important psychological positions that included: Chief psychologist of the State of New Jersey and professorships at Rutgers and other universities. More importantly, Albert Ellis was the founder of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), the first of the now popular Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (CBT).

In 1954, Ellis began teaching his new techniques to other therapists, and by 1957, he formally set forth the first cognitive behavior therapy by proposing that therapists help people adjust their thinking and behavior as the treatment for emotional and behavioral problems. Two years later, Ellis published ‘How to Live with a Neurotic’, which elaborated on his new method.

Albert Ellis established the Albert Ellis Institute in 1959. The Albert Ellis Institute is a non-profit organization whose mission was to promote Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy as a educative and preventative theory. The Albert Ellis Institute promoted Rational Behavioral Therapy’s practice and theory through training professionals and the public. Initially Albert Ellis ran everything from his own private practice as a psychologist. Then Albert Ellis purchased a six story townhouse in Manhattan in 1964. He took that town house that had previously been occupied by The Woodrow Wilson Institute and used it for his work. Albert Ellis donated the earnings of his books to purchase the building and to fund the running costs of the Institute.

Albert Ellis practiced psychotherapy, marriage and family counseling as well as sex therapy for over sixty years at the Psychological Center of the Institute in New York. Albert Ellis also served as president of the Division of Consulting Psychology of the American Psychological Association and of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. He also served as officer of several profession societies including the American Association of Marital and Family Therapy, the American Academy of Psychotherapists, and the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists.

Albert Ellis was ranked one of the most influential psychologists by both American and Canadian psychologists and counselors. He also served as consulting or associate editor of many scientific journals. He published more than eight hundred scientific papers and more than two hundred audio and video cassettes. 

During his final years he collaborated with Michael S. Abrams, Ph.D., on his only college textbook Personality Theories: Critical Perspectives. Albert Ellis also wrote an autobiography entitled “All Out!” published by Prometheus Books in June 2010. The book was dedicated to and contributed by his wife Dr. Debbie Ellis who Ellis described as “The greatest love of my whole life, my whole life”. He also entrusted the legacy of REBT to her. In early 2011, the book Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Dr. Albert Ellis and his wife Dr. Debbie Ellis was released by the American Psychological Association. The book explains the essentials of the theory of REBT and is considered an excellent basic guide in understanding the REBT approach for students and practitioners of psychology as well as for the general public.

http://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologists/albert-ellis.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Ellis

 

Airport Therapy Dogs

Airport Therapy Dogs

Airport therapy dogs are exactly what they sound like, dogs meant to provide therapy in airports. These dogs are not sniffing out drugs or there as security; these dogs are just meant to bring a smile to anyone in the airport who wants to be near them.

Airport therapy dogs are becoming more prevalent in U.S. airports where travelers are in need of a friend. Travelers can interact with loving dogs that are looking for a belly rub or even just a hug. The idea behind airport therapy dogs is that you never know why people are flying or what kind of day they have had and traveling can make anyone’s day a little bit more stressful with its long lines, crowds and terrorism concerns; airport therapy dogs are meant to relieve some of that stress.

Airport therapy dogs have to be healthy, skilled, stable and well-mannered. They must also be able to work on a slack 4-foot leash. The airport therapy dogs also have to be comfortable with crowds, sounds, smells and they have to pass through security just like all the other airport workers. The airport therapy dog handlers are taught to watch for people who may be afraid or dislike dogs or those who might have allergies. In most cases the people who like dogs will come up to them. The airport therapy dogs are identifiable by their vests or bandanas that they wear around the airport.

People can come up to the airport therapy dogs and hug them, touch them, talk to them, pet them etc. The whole point is for the dog to make them feel better about whatever it is and if they are already having a good day just to make them smile. The airport therapy dogs are already having a big impact. Anyone who is around them leaves smiling; strangers begin talking to each other etc.

Here are some sweet stories of airport therapy dogs from the New Jersey Herald:

When Claudia McCaskill’s family recently flew home from vacation in Brazil she requested Casey meet the plane to greet her 5-year-old daughter, Carina, who is autistic. She knew Carina would be low on energy and patience and they still had a 2.5-hour drive home to St. Lucie. Casey and handler Liz Miller were there with a gift basket and Carina fell in love with the dog. “Thank you for visiting us at the airport so I would be happy,” Carina said in a video the family made for Casey. Now Carina wants to go back and see Casey again. “I can’t say how much we appreciate what they did for us. It not only helped our daughter, but us too,” McCaskill said.

Before departing from San Jose, a soldier kneeled down and told Henry James: “OK, buddy, you take care of the house while I am gone,” Hubis said.

A woman who said her husband of 40 years told her he wanted a divorce that morning wept on Henry’s shoulder. “He just sat there,” Hubis said. “He knew. He can feel.”

Airport therapy dogs have been a huge success at the few airports where they are working which is mainly within the Los Angeles International Airport; within Miami International Airport; and in San Jose, California’s airport.

Love Addiction Therapy

Love Addiction Therapy

Love addiction is not actually the addiction to a person whom someone loves. In fact, it is the exact opposite. Someone with a love addiction doesn’t actually love the person who is the object of their affection; instead the addiction is more about a series of compulsive actions that the person is unable to stop. Someone who is a love addict will have an established pattern of brief but very intense, romantic relationships. If someone with a love addiction has a long-term relationship it is characterized by many highs and lows. Another pattern of someone who is a love addict is when the person withdraws completely from romantic or sexual relationships, like a kind of anorexia, in order to avoid feeling vulnerable. In all of these instances the love addict is focused more on romantic relationships whether it be avoiding them, involvement in one or looking for the next one.

Here are some signs of a love addiction:

  • Being involved in one romantic/sexual relationship after another or juggling multiple relationships
  • Feeling incomplete when in between romantic relationships
  • Inability to let go of the relationship once it is over
  • Repeatedly getting involved with people who are emotionally unavailable
  • Becoming emotionally or sexually attached to a person you don’t really know
  • Idolizing a romantic interest and then blaming that person for not living up to their expectations
  • Spending an inappropriate amount of time on romantic fantasies or obsession that interferes with the love addict’s life

Love addiction therapy comes in the form of supportive therapy, a 12-step programs like Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous or both. With love addiction therapy the goal is not to expect a person to live a loveless existence for the rest of their life. Instead they need to stop constantly focusing on finding the next love partner or obsessing about the one they have or have lost. The whole goal of love addiction therapy is to move towards are more positive relationship with a real person not an idyllic fantasy of Prince charming or the Princess etc. Codependents Anonymous is another great way to get love addiction therapy because it guides its members towards developing healthy relationships.

Love addiction therapy also will need to include rules for love sobriety. Love addiction therapy can include the help from a therapist or a sponsor who can help to set limits on the behavior. An example of this would be the therapist or sponsor says that flirting is off limits or sexual intimacy is off limits for the first 30 days of dating. Overtime this can help a love addict learn how to manage their obsessions and become better able to have a healthy relationship with another person.

It is hard with a love addiction because to a certain extent a lot of the symptoms are normal but if the obsession with relationships or love begin taking over someone’s life then there is definitely a problem. Luckily there are multiple self-help groups and any therapist can offer love addiction therapy to someone who needs it.

Source: http://www.projectknow.com/research/love-addiction/

 

History of Therapy – Boris Sidis

History of Therapy - Boris Sidis

Boris Sidis was an influential part of the history of therapy. He was a Ukrainian psychologist, physician, psychiatrist, and philosopher of education. Sidis founded the New York State Psychopathic Institute and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Boris Sidis was born in the Ukraine in 1867 and immigrated to the United States in 1887 to escape persecution. At that time, Jewish immigrants were subject to the Mays Laws. As a result, Boris Sidis was imprisoned for two years when he came to the United States.

Boris Sidis attended Harvard University and completed four degrees: a BA, MA, PhD, and an MD. He was very influential in the early 20th century in the field of psychopathology. He developed his own method of hypnosis and was successful at treating both cases of functional nervous and mental disorders. He worked in hospitals, private practice, and sanitariums. He is known for applying the Theory of Evolution to the study of psychology.

Sidis opposed World War One. He viewed war as a social disease. He also disagreed with the theory of eugenics, which was very popular at the time. Eventually, the theory of eugenics would gain even more popularity and become the cornerstone of Nazi propaganda in World War II. He tried to understand why people behave the way they do in cases of a mob frenzy or religious mania.

Boris Sidis raised his own son, William James Sidis, using his own psychotherapeutic theories. He was born on April 1, 1989. His parents lavished attention on him. At six months, he spoke his first word. By eighteen months, he was reading the New York Times and had learned to count. At three he was typing letters. He taught himself Latin and went on to learn Greek, Russian, French, German, Hebrew, Turkish and Armenian. During his life he mastered at least forty languages and it was said he could learn a new language in a day. At six, he could quote facts from books and even give the numbers of the pages on which those facts could be verified. He completed all seven grades of grade school in seven months. He devised his own speed-reading system and wrote four books between the ages of six and eight. By the time he was eight years old, he passed the Harvard Medical School anatomy examination and the entrance exam for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At eleven he enrolled as a ‘special student’ at Harvard and at twelve delivered a lecture on ‘four-dimensional bodies’ to the Harvard Mathematical Club. He is widely thought to be one of the most intelligent people to ever live, and his IQ was estimated at 250-300. Unfortunately, after receiving a lot of publicity for his childhood accomplishments, Boris Sidis’s son came to live an eccentric life and died in relative obscurity.

Later in life, Boris Sidis rejected the ideas of mainstream psychology and Sigmund Freud. He was a vehement opponent of psychoanalysis. Thus, at the end of his life he was ostracized from the community he helped to create.

http://www.sidis.net/Borisabout.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_Sidis

 

Sand Tray Therapy

Sand Tray Therapy

Sand tray therapy is an expressive therapy that can also be called sand play or the world technique. Sand tray therapy was developed by a group of people male and female. Sand tray therapy is most often is used with children but can also be applied to adults, teens, couples, families and even groups. Sand tray therapy allows a client to create their own microcosm using miniature toys and different colored sand. The microcosm the client creates acts as a reflection of their life and allows them to resolve conflicts, remove obstacles and to connect with their inner being and recognize the beauty of their own soul by teaching them how to accept themselves.

The most commonly used technique in sand tray therapy is what is known as the world technique. The world technique involves the use of miniatures. Clients are encouraged to use things such as miniature toys, figurines and objects in the sand in whatever way they want to. Clients can add water and place the miniatures in the sand tray in any order. The entire design of the sand tray is developed and guided by their own imagination and subconscious. The result of this is a microcosm of their inner world or scaled down miniature version of what they think, feel, believe and perceive inside. The world within the sand tray is expressed through different symbols and metaphors. The design of the sand tray may not make sense to the client initially but with the help of a therapist a client, even a child, can begin to see the relationship between what they created in the sand tray and their own inner world.

Sand tray therapy is most often used with children because many children are unable to vocalize their emotional state especially those children who have experienced extreme trauma, neglect or abuse. The use of the sand tray or the element of a familiar item, such as sand, helps children to automatically have a sense of comfort and security. The therapist doesn’t usually direct the child what to do with the sand tray but allows the child to be free to play and develop their own expression of different situations. More often than not the child will begin to experience a sense of play and will begin making assumptions and behavior changes without any type of prompting from the therapist. Sand tray therapy is a valuable and powerful type of therapy for children and a very insightful way to get access into their experiences which they may not be able to completely vocalize.

Sand tray therapy for adults is also very beneficial for those adults who have been traumatized and also cannot express their emotional state through words or other cognitive memory type of therapies. Sand tray therapy gives a non-threatening atmosphere that is free from threats, violence and repercussions. Sand tray therapy allows the adults to act out any scenarios that present themselves. The sand tray therapist works with the client to change the positions of the miniatures in order to use them as accurate representations of people and events. Through this, the client can begin to create change on a fictional or microcosmic level and can then gain the courage and ability to recognize the same changes can be made in reality and their own life.

Source: http://www.wichitatherapy.net/Sand-Tray/

 

Therapy for Sociopathy

Therapy for Sociopathy

Sociopathy is also known as anti-social personality disorder. When it comes to sociopathy it can be very difficult to treat and there is no known cure for it. Sociopathy can be managed with the help from therapy though. There are many challenges when it comes to treating sociopathy and in therapy for sociopathy; most of these challenges come from the fact that the patient usually does not believe they have a problem, they are usually charming, they defend and rationalize their behavior, and also believe the way they are acting works well for them in their daily life. People with a need for therapy for their sociopathy also tend to think they are superior to everyone and smarter than everyone including doctors which can make them unwilling to seek treatment. Usually, someone who needs therapy for sociopathy ends up getting the help because they are court mandated or pressured by family members. When they do decide to get therapy there are three different treatments that are most commonly used: behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and psychotherapy.

Therapy for sociopathy: Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral therapy for sociopathy is based on the idea that the anti-social behavior associated with the mental disorder is not a set of beliefs but was and is learned. This learned anti-social behavior may have had something to do with the patient’s environment overtime starting with when they were a child. Someone with sociopathy will react to a situation today with behaviors or responses they learned in the past. Behavioral therapy for sociopathy is helpful because: it can help identify some of what causes the anti-social responses in the patient and then teach new coping behaviors to them. There are many ways that behavioral therapy for sociopathy does this; through token economy, which is using a symbolic token to reinforce good behavior, social skills training, and conditioning.

Cognitive therapy for sociopathy bases its treatment on the idea that; thoughts control behavior, so by taking care of the thoughts and feelings, they can change the behavior. Cognitive therapy for sociopathy also uses models where the patient can watch a healthy person cope effectively with situations that are challenging, stressful etc. and then imitate them to help with anger management and social skills.

Psychotherapy for sociopathy goes deeper than cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy to look at the deep-rooted causes behind the patient’s antisocial behavior. Psychotherapists see sociopathy as disturbance in the personality and work with the patient to not only repair but also recognize the parts of the personality that need work and development.

The use of drugs is also a party of the therapy for sociopathy. The use of drugs in the therapy for sociopathy is controversial because sociopathy is a behavioral disorder that develops over time and it is believed by some that just “masking” it with prescription drugs is not an effective way to treat it.

In severe cases of sociopathy where the individual is showing disregard towards the safety of themselves or others than shock therapy could be used as a physical therapy for sociopathy. Although, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has not been proven to be helpful in the treatment of sociopathy.

Sociopathy can never be cured but with a mixture of some these therapies and what those in the field advise it is possible for someone to recover from their mental health problems and lead a fulfilling life.

Source: http://www.wisegeek.org/how-is-sociopathy-treated.htm

Antisocial Personality Disorder Therapy

Antisocial Personality Disorder Therapy

Antisocial personality disorder is more commonly referred to as psychopathy or sociopathy in today’s popular culture. Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by patterns of disregard for other people’s rights and more often crossing the line and violating those rights. Antisocial personality disorder usually begins during childhood or as a teen and continues on into adult life. Someone who has an antisocial personality disorder fails to feel empathy and tends to be cynical, hard and contemptuous of other people’s feelings, rights, and suffering. Someone with antisocial personality disorder may be arrogant, excessively opinionated, self-assured, or cocky. Antisocial personality disorder is really characterized by a lack of empathy, an inflated self-appraisal, and superficial charm.

Antisocial personality disorder is usually diagnosed in someone who has had a pattern of antisocial behavior since the age of 15 even though only adults can be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Some of the symptoms of antisocial personality disorder are:

  • Deceitfulness
  • Impulsivity
  • Irritability and aggressiveness
  • Reckless disregard for safety of self and others
  • Irresponsibility
  • Lack of remorse
  • Failure to conform to social norms

Researchers today don’t know what causes antisocial personality disorder. It is believed to be caused by biological, genetic, social and psychological factors. Antisocial personality disorder therapy usually is a long term type of therapy with a therapist that has experience in treating antisocial personality disorder. Antisocial personality disorder therapy usually includes trying to connect the person’s actions and their feelings together. Emotions are usually the focus of antisocial personality disorder therapy. People with antisocial personality disorder often tend to have no significant emotionally rewarding relationships with other people; this means that the relationship a patient makes with a therapist may be one of the first ones. Antisocial personality disorder therapy also focuses on reinforcing emotions that are safe which means it reinforces any emotion that is not anger or frustration. People who need antisocial personality disorder therapy often have problems with authority figures. This means during antisocial personality disorder therapy the therapist makes sure to take a totally neutral stance instead of an authoritative one.

There are also other types of antisocial personality disorder therapies aside from individual psychotherapy. For instance, some other antisocial personality disorder therapies that are effective are group and family therapy. Any group therapy for antisocial personality disorder isn’t effective though. Usually when someone with antisocial personality disorder is in a group setting they will shut down or be more apt to close off emotionally; it is easier too. When in a group setting that is totally exclusive for those with an antisocial personality disorder it is most effective. The patient instead of being given reason to close off emotionally has more reason to open up.

Unfortunately the truth about antisocial personality disorder therapy is that most people who are suffering from the disorder don’t seek out treatment on their own. Most people who are participating in antisocial personality disorder therapy are mandated to go either by the courts or a significant other. This makes antisocial personality disorder therapy even more difficult because most of the patients are unmotivated.

Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antisocial-personality-disorder/DS00829/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs

What to do when you can’t afford therapy

Cost of therapy

One of the biggest reasons some people who need therapy don’t get therapy is because of money. They might look at a therapist’s hourly rate and immediately assume that they can’t afford it at all so they just give up. The truth is that if you need therapy you can probably manage to get it you just need to know what to do if you can’t.  Here are some really good ideas on what to do when you can’t afford therapy but really want it or need it.

  • Check with your insurance- Even if you can’t pay the hourly rate out of your own pocket for therapy, you may be able to afford it with insurance, if you have it. Just call your insurance and see what therapists are covered in your network. Chances are therapy that costs one hundred to two hundred dollars will only costs you a fraction of that. If you insurance won’t help pay for therapy find out what it does cover. You may be surprised.

 

  • Another thing you can do when you can’t afford therapy is try a training clinic. Training clinic offers clients a sliding scale. Usually training clinics are at universities where graduate students are preparing to become psychologists.

 

  • Try a community mental health center for when you can’t afford therapy. To find a community mental health center use the internet, use Google, or look at your state government website for the Department of Human Services.

 

  • Read self-help books when you can’t afford therapy. You can call local therapists and just search around online for book recommendations. Depending on what your special needs are you can find self-help books for everything now days.

 

  • Self-help groups are great when you can’t afford therapy. Self-help groups are free and are a lot like group therapy. Sometimes self-help groups are run by mental health professionals or they are run by peers. Ask therapists if they offer lower costs for group therapy session or where they know of some self-help groups. With self-help groups you can meet people who are struggling with the same thing you are.

 

  • Look up some natural or holistic ways to deal with whatever you are going through. When you can’t afford therapy you can find other holistic therapies that you can do all by yourself on your own. For instance, you can try working out, meditation, breathing exercises, eating well, drinking more water, or even buying a pet. Whatever it is that may make you feel better naturally. Go get a massage, maybe get into acupuncture, or get some chiropractic care. All of those things are cheaper than some therapy. Either way you can find out all about these holistic ways of healing yourself online or with podcasts and on YouTube.

When you can’t afford therapy you have to do what works for you whatever that is. A lot of the time you will find a solution to your problems in the places you least expected it.

Exposure Therapy and PTSD

Expsoure Therapy and PTSD

Exposure therapy is one of the most effective treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). After a traumatic event, many individuals experience distress and other symptoms of PTSD. The distress may be highest when dealing with the memories, thoughts, feelings and situations related to the traumatic event.

Exposure Therapy and PTSD: Why is it used?

Exposure therapy is a commonly used therapy for treatment of anxiety disorders, specific phobias, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It is common for people to avoid situations that remind them of a trauma, because it may bring up negative or uncomfortable emotions. If you experienced trauma by once being trapped in an elevator, you may climb 9 flights of stairs to avoid going in one. If you have PTSD from your time serving in the military, you may avoid places where there will be loud noises or decline to watch movies or T.V. shows that depict war scenes. Aside from inconveniencing yourself and other people, avoiding things that remind you of trauma means that you are never able to overcome it. In fact, avoiding situations that cause remind you of your trauma may make your fears even worse.

Exposure Therapy and PTSD: How does it work?

Exposure therapy for PTSD exposes you to the situations or objects you fear. The idea is that if you are repeatedly exposed to things that cause you to relive your trauma, you will eventually get over your fear, and stop associating those things with traumatic events. Exposure therapy for PTSD involves either you confronting the situations in real life or your therapist directing you to imagine the scary situation.    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a modern but effective treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and has been tested on several active duty Army soldiers using an immersive computer simulation of military settings.

Exposure Therapy and PTSD: What are the goals?     

The goal of exposure therapy and PTSD is to help reduce a person’s fear or anxiety. The ultimate goal is to eliminate avoidance behavior and improve quality of life. Eventually, the hope is the patient will be able to go into situations they once feared without any distress or PTSD symptoms. Standard treatment consists of 8-15 sessions conducted once or twice weekly for 90 minutes each. The duration of treatment can be shortened or lengthened depending on the needs of the client and his or her rate of progress.

Exposure Therapy and PTSD:   What does it entail?

Exposure therapy for PTSD has four main parts:

1. Education: Exposure therapy for PTSD starts with education about the treatment. The patient learns about common trauma reactions and PTSD. It allows them to learn more about their symptoms and to understand the goals of treatment.

2. Breathing: Relaxation techniques like controlled breathing are taught before the actual exposure. This is so the patient knows how to control anxiety and fear to manage distress.

3. Real World Practice: This is the part of exposure therapy for PTSD where the patient is exposed to the situation that causes distress either by guided memory, real life exposure, or virtual reality exposure.

4. Talking through the trauma: Talking through the trauma memory over and over can help the patient get more control about the thoughts and the feelings about the trauma.

http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=89

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406222/

http://ptsd.about.com/od/treatment/a/ExposureTxPTSD.htm